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The auto abstract

Scientific work submitted on competition to a scientific degree of the doctor of sciences.

 

 

 

Theme: Definition of date of formation Crab Like Nebula by means of the analysis of historical sources by astronomical methods.

 

 

Crab Like Nebula was formed as a result of explosion of a super nova star II of a type. It is designated under number 1 ( 1) in the Messies nebulas catalogue. Nebula is displayed on constellation Taurus also is on distance approximately 1700 parsecs or 5500 light years from the Sun. A super nova star, which explosion has formed Crab Like Nebula, the astronomers designate as SN 1054 (Super Nova 1054). After dump of an environment on a place super nova the neutron star - pulsar NP 0531 with the period 0, 033 sec. was formed.

 

Fig 1.

Crab Like Nebula 1.

 

It is considered that the super nova star which has formed Crab Like Nebula, flashed in 1054 of our era. This opinion has arisen as a result of decoding the Chinese and Japanese historical chronicles, in which there is a mention of a "star- guest". With date of flare 1054 agree also majority of the astronomers. Astrophysicist I.Shklovsky, corresponding member SA USSR in the book Stars: their birth, life and death (1984) wrote about Crab Like Nebula:

An arrangement of nebula gas fibres varies much more slowly. The supervision divided by an interval of time per 30 years, have allowed to establish, that all system of fibres extends. It as though crawl off on the sky with angular speed about 0, 23 seconds per one year. On the other hand, angular nebula radius makes about 180 seconds. From here directly follows, that age of the nebula, received in the assumption, that the speed of its expansion all time remained constant, almost accuracy is equal to 800 years. It, certainly, is close to age counted from the moment of flare super nova (930) years, but nevertheless it is less than it.

Except for the Chinese and Japanese chronicles there are still historical certificates on supervision by this super nova. There are rock carvings made by American Indians, living in territory of modern states Arizona and New Mexico. In these figures the sickle of the young Moon and very bright heavenly object is represented ostensibly. Such decoding of this figure is given by the astronomers and traditional historians and carry date of the represented astronomical situation by 1054.

Besides the idea was stated, that this super nova (1054), which is flashed very close to ecliptic, is represented on rock carvings in northwest of America, on which the half of the Moon near to a circle or symbol of a star is seen. However, the dating of these images is rather inexact (tenth - twelfth centuries), though one of pictures represents a correct relative situation of a half moon and star .

(Historical super nova D.A. Grin, R.F. Stivenson)

On a background of complete silence of the European and Arabian chronicles involuntarily amaze imagination two rock carvings found in 1955 in Northern Arizona (fig. 2). One of these images is in cave, and others on a wall of a canyon. Each such image consists of two elements - circle and growing half moon. These images were cut in rocks by American Indians almost five centuries prior to discovering America by Christopher Columbus.

Such symbolics is extremely rare for American Indians. It is rather probable, that these figures represent struck the natives of America the heavenly phenomenon: the young Moon and near to it a star of extraordinary brightness. The analysis shows, that such phenomenon could be only flare of super nova 1054 [69]. From accounts follows, that in the morning of July 5, before dawn, the Moon was in 2o to north from present Crab Like Nebula, on a place, where flashed then a star. According to the archaeology data in the same time in the period with 900 till 1100 the district, where the surprising images are found, was populated by American Indians from tribe Navaho. At last, age of the images estimated on usual in archaeology method is about 900 years. All these facts do a hypothesis that American Indians have embodied flare of super nova 1054 rather probable. (I.Shklovsky. " Super nova stars and problems, connected to them, " ., 1976, In "Science")

 

 

 

I carry out check of this I.Shklovsky statement and his incorrectness is revealed. The check of an astronomical situation of July 5, 1054 shows, that the Moon this day was decreasing and settled down not precisely to north from the Crab, and was in northeast from it. It means, that an astronomical situation, about which spoke I.Shklovsky, and real astronomical situation of July 5, 1054 do not coincide.

Causes doubt and method, which uses I.Shklovsky for definition of day and year of the heavenly phenomenon represented on rock carving. The mechanism of movement of the Moon is those, that about everyone 10 the Moon years will pass on 2 degrees above places of flare super nova. It means, that the opportunity of definition of concrete date is in such a way excluded.

 

I offer other decoding the rock carvings made by American Indians.

 

Fig. 2

 

In this figure the SOLAR ECLIPSE and Super Nova Star becoming especially bright in the darkened sky is represented.

Thin half moon, it not the Moon, and edge of the Sun which are were seen because of the Moon, eclipsing it! And star and Sun with the Moon are located on one line, that is on ecliptic. The arrangement of this super nova star on the ecliptic allows confidently approve that the image of a star in figure is super nova of the Crab, as for last one thousand years was not marked of super nova stars, flashed in such direct affinity from ecliptic.

It is necessary to find date, in which such astronomical phenomenon has taken place. I check up all solar eclipses seen in this territory, with 1000 for 1300. From all checked up eclipses only one has coincided on the parameters with the image in figure. This solar eclipse of May 11, 1184.

Super Nova of the Crab

 

 

 

Fig. 3.

On this circuit the solar eclipse of May 11, 1184 is shown.

The image is received with use of the astronomical program REDShift 3.

 

The comparison of the rock carving and image received with the help of the astronomical programs for date of May 11, 1184 shows their identity. The opened palm on rock carving, probably, designates a solar crown or comet.

Thus, the above mentioned facts speak that super nova star, formed Crab Like Nebula, flashed in 1184.

 

 

Fig. 4

Astronomical situation of May 11, 1184. An eclipse in Taurus constellation.

By a white arrow is designated Crab Like Nebula 1.

The astroprogram CTARCALC

 

 

The symbolical image of the Sun during an eclipse and super nova star on ecliptic are fixed not only in rock carvings:

Turkey

Tunis

Algeria

Azerbaijan

Pakistan

Malaysia

 

Nepal

 

 

Russian historian N. Karamzin about super nova stars.

 

The opinion is distributed, that in Europe super nova star of the Crab did not observe, and in the European historical documents there is no mention of this star.

On a background of complete silence of the European and Arabian chronicles involuntarily amaze imagination two rock carvings found in 1955 in Northern Arizona (fig. 2).

(I.Shklovsky. "Super nova stars and problems" ., 1976, In "Science")

Though it was supposed, that there should be certificates on supervision it in Europe, but before present time of the authentic certificates it is not present.

(Historical super nova D.A. Grin, R.F. Stivenson)

 

 

 

On this circuit, the red colour designates areas of detection of the written certificates about occurrence of a bright star in 11 century. It is Japan, China, Iraq. On other party of the Earth, in America are found out American Indians rock carvings. At the same time in Europe and on Russia (grey colour), historical documents showing of supervision of this star, under the statements of the astronomers and the historians are not present.

Now it is clear, that these astronomers and historians were mistaken, and to search it was necessary not in 1054, and in 1184, that is in 12 century. But also this understanding does not facilitate a task, as there is no reliance of correctness of dates of annalistic events and description of historical event frequently superficially, is inconsistent, not professionally and is subjective.

An example from Histories of the state Russian N.M.Karamzin.

1230 the Inhabitants of Novgorod, .. Soon have seen much awful evil in walls. A harbinger it(him) was earthquake (May 3), general(common) for all Russia,

In ten days a unusual eclipse of the sun and the multi-coloured clouds in the sky moved by a strong wind, also have frightened the people, is especial in Kiev, where the superstitious people waited for the end, cried in streets and were forgiven with each other .

(N.M.Karamzin A History of the state Russian Volume 4, chapter 1)

 

We check, that it was for a unusual eclipse and is seen, that in 1230, in the sky of Kiev there was nothing frightening the people . There was a solar eclipse of May 14, but it was INCOMPLETE, the maximum of an eclipse had for early morning, at 5 hours.

 

 

 

The reconstruction of this eclipse is shown on a snapshot. This usual, anything remarkable, incomplete solar eclipse. Such eclipses in Kiev with 1000 for 1300 occured 107 times. Probably, not about this eclipse the historian wrote. And about what? What to answer this question it would be necessary itself to work with bases of astronomy and logic.

...The unusual eclipse of the sun about which speaks N.M.Karamzin, can mean only COMPLETE or RING a FIGURATIVE solar eclipse. Let's look when there were complete and ring figurative solar eclipses observed in Kiev with 1000 for 1300. For these three hundred years in Kiev was observed only such five eclipses.

It is eclipses of September 4, 1187

June 23, 1191

August 5, 1263

March 23, 1270

September 5, 1290

 

At breadth and longitude of Kiev these eclipses had such kind.

 

Eclipse of June 23, 1191. Above than Sun Venus is visible.

 

 

Eclipse of March 23, 1270.

 

There is one more astronomical phenomenon in a history of those years, which will allow to choose the necessary year of an eclipse.

Describing 1223, .M.Karamzin writes -

 

1223 - But soon unfortunate for a superstitious sign have made general(common) fear in Russia (and in all Europe). Was the comet, the star of size unusual, and whole week in twilight was shown in west, shining the sky by a beam brilliant. In the same summer the unusual drought has become: the woods, bog, were ignited, the rich clouds of a smoke eclipsed light of the sun, the darkness weighed air, and the birds, to amazement of the people, fell dead on ground .

 

Discrepancy of the formulation the comet - star complicates identification of object, but we, while, shall concentrate attention on the friend.

The awful eclipse, about which writes Karamzin, has taken place under his description in 1230, and occurrence of a comet - star, under his description in 1223, that is the bright comet - star has appeared for seven years before an eclipse. Annalistic dates of occurrence of a star-comet and solar eclipse we already have subjected to doubt and consequently we do not consider with their exact. And that between these astronomical phenomena distance per seven years, will be interesting to us to exact calculation of year of occurrence of this star.

Let's make simple arithmetic action. From date found by us complete and ring of figurative solar eclipses we shall take away seven years.

 

1290 7 = 1283

 

1270 7 = 1263

 

1263 - 7 = 1256

 

1191 7 = 1184

 

1187 7 = 1180

 

The 1184 is already familiar to us. It is year of flare of a Super Nova Star of Crab Like Nebula.

Was the comet, the star of size unusual, and whole week in twilight was shown in west, shining the sky by a beam brilliant .

In figure is visible both star and comet. This picture in the evening sky was especially well visible.

 

Conclusion:

1. On the basis of the analysis of the rock carvings found in northern America, by an astronomical method, is established, that the given image shows a mutual arrangement of the Sun, Moon and bright star of observed May 11, 1184. A bright star located on ecliptic, can be only super nova star which has formed Crab Like Nebula. Thus, it is possible to make the conclusion that this super nova flashed in 1184.

In addition it is necessary to tell, that the heavenly picture of such configuration could be observed only from area of modern Mexico City Ukatan - Panama.

2. The astronomical analysis of the texts of the historical annals submitted N.M.Karamzin in A History of the state Russian , shows, that in them there are items of information on supervision of a bright star in 1184 in area of city of Kiev (Ukraine).

3. Stated above, allows to make the proved conclusion that the super nova star which has formed Crab Like Nebula, flashed in 1184 of our era. The accepted earlier date of flare of this super nova star - 1054 to consider incorrect.

 

The list of the literature:

1.     I.Shklovsky Supernew stars: their birth, life and death Moscow, 1984, publishing house "Science".

2.    I.Shklovsky Supernew stars and problems, connected to them, Moscow, 1976, publishing house "Science".

3.    D.A. Grin, R.F. Stivenson Historical super nova stars.

4.    N.M.Karamzin A History of the state Russian Volume 1- 4. Moscow, 1993, publishing house Book garden

5.    Astronomical program REDShift 3.

6.    Astronomical program CTARCALC.

 

 

 

5. ࠠ REDShift 3 .

 

6. CTARCALC.

 

 

 

 

Sergey Kolesnikov

 

E-mail: ksb_pavlodar@mail.ru

 

Pavlodar July 3, 2005

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